FORCING AND VALIDATION DATA FROM THE
SIX RUSSIAN STATIONS USED IN THE
ROBOCK ET AL.
Department of Meteorology,
University of Maryland
C. Adam Schlosser
Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies
Nina A. Speranskaya
State Hydrological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia
February 14, 1997
Robock et al. (1995) used 6 stations from the Vinnikov
and Yeserkepova (1991) 50-station archive
(also in the 130-station archive)
to demonstrate that land surface models, when forced with actual
meteorological and actinometric data, can be evaluated by comparison
with actual soil moisture, snow depth, albedo, and net radiation observations.
Those forcing and validation data
are described here. Subsets of
soil moisture and
depth of frozen soil layers
are also available.
These data have been used by a number of land
surface groups to exercise their models, and we encourage further use of these
data by others.
1. Meteorological data:
The meteorological data for the six stations are located in files
"*.meto" (one for each station).
Each of these files corresponds to a different station site:
Yersh.meto = Station Yershov (51.4°N, 48.3°E)
Tulun.meto = Station Tulun (54.6°N, 100.6°E)
Uralsk.meto = Station Uralsk (51.3°N, 51.4°E)
Kost.meto = Station Kostroma (57.8°N, 40.9°E)
Khab.meto = Station Khabarovsk (48.5°N, 135.2°E)
Ogurt.meto = Station Ogurtsovo (54.9°N, 82.9°E)
Each line of the file corresponds to one time step set of observations
with an interval of 3 hours between each observation time. Each
observation set contains the following measurements (in order
5) saturation deficiency (mb)
6) height of lower cloud layer (km)
7) dew point temperature (°C)
8) total cloudiness amount (tenths of total coverage)
9) lower cloudiness amount (tenths of total coverage)
10) wind direction (°)
11) wind velocity (m/sec)
12) total precipitation (mm)
13) air pressure (mb)
14) soil surface temperature (°C)
15) air temperature (°Cs)
The format for reading the data (in Fortran code) at each line is:
read (unit#,15) iyear,month,itime,iday,satdef,
15 format (I3,3I2,f3.1,f2.1,f3.0,2I2,I3,I2,f4.1,f5.1,f3.0,f4.1)
Three important points:
- If you use the lower cloud amount measurements, a value of
11 or 12 is sometimes used to denote various obscured conditions.
We just included an if/then statement to assume it equal to 10
(i.e. 100% coverage) when this happens. It doesn't seem to happen
that often so it seems that this was a reasonably good assumption
- Any missing data within the line is denoted by a line of 9's
(e.g., 999, 99, 99.9, 9.9, 9999.9, etc...) for its value.
- The time of observations.
2. Actinometric Data:
The actinometric data for the six stations are located in the
files "*.act". As in the meteorological data, each
file corresponds to one station:
Yersh.act = Yershov
Tulun.act = Tulun
Uralsk.act = Uralsk
Kost.act = Kostroma
Khab.act = Khabarovsk
Ogurt.act = Ogurtsovo
Again each line denotes one time step, with an interval of 3
hours between each observation... NOTE, HOWEVER THAT TWO OBSERVATION
TIMES WITHIN THE COURSE OF THE DAY ARE OMITTED. THEY ARE @ 3:30
A.M. AND 9:30 P.M.. You will have to, of course, account for
this when reading in the data. Each line entry contains the following
set of observations (in order from left to right):
5) net radiation at the surface (longwave and shortwave): (kW/m2)
6) direct shortwave radiation on a surface perpendicular to the
solar zenith angle (kW/m2)
7) total (both direct and diffuse) incoming solar radiation (kW/m2)
8) albedo of the surface
9) total cloudiness (tenths of total coverage)
10) lower cloudiness (tenths of total coverage)
The format for reading in the line of data (in Fortran) is:
read (unit#,18) iyear,month,time,iday,radnet,
18 format (I3, I2, F4.2, I2, 3F4.2, F3.2, 2I2)
Again, missing values are denoted by a line of 9's. The 11 and
12 values of cloudiness apply here as well. Unfortunately, we
do not have any explicit downward longwave radiation measurements.
Though the net radiation measurement seems helpful, I do not
recommend you use it. For our experiments, we have used the Satterlund
bulk formula to calculate downward longwave.
3. Hydrology and Sub-Surface Data
The data are located in the files "*.hydro". Again,
each station for each file:
Yersh.hydro = Yershov
Tulun.hydro = Tulun
Uralsk.hydro = Uralsk
Kost.hydro = Kostroma
Khab.hydro = Khabarovsk
Ogurt.hydro = Ogurtsovo
The data contained in each of the files vary from surface
to sub-surface hydrology parameters and are very inconsistent in
content between each station. Here is a total list of measurements that
a file can contain:
1) available soil moisture (cm) for four sub-layers (0-10 cm, 0-20 cm,
0-50 cm, and 0-100 cm). [These
soil moisture data are available as a separate data set.]
2) mean snow cover thickness near the station (cm)
3) water equivalent snow cover thickness (cm)
4) snow covered area (%)
5) max. water vapor pressure on the snow surface (mb)
6) evaporation from the snow surface during the night (cm)
7) evaporation from the snow surface during the daylight (cm)
8) total evaporation from the surface (grasscover) (cm)
9) precipitation during the same period of #8 (cm)
10) total evaporation from surface under the vegetation (cm)
11) freezing depth of soil from the surface (cm)
12) snow cover thickness at the station (cm)
13) melting of the soil from the surface (cm)
14) ground temperature (°C) at different depths and heat
15) depth (cm) and temperature (°C) of water table
The first line contains a year number and the name of the station.
The next 8 lines are the soil moisture measurements. A two line
block consists of measurements made through the year of available
soil moisture for a particular soil layer. The first two line
block is for the 0-10cm layer, the second for the 0-20cm layer,
the third for 0-50cm layer, and the fourth for 0-100cm layer.
For a particular two line block, the format for reading this block
The data begin in January and end in December. Measurements of
soil moisture are taken on the 8th, the 18th, and the 28th of
each month (i.e. 3 times a month for 12 months = 36 total entries...
2 lines of 18 entries).
The next two lines (after the first eight) are for variable #2
(mean snow cover). They are read exactly as the soil moisture
measurements with entries made on the 8th, 18th, and the 28th
of each month, but with the format of the entry now:
As before a line of 9's for its value denotes missing or measurement
not taken (if there is no snow to measure).
The next two lines are for the third variable (water equivalent
snow depth). It reads the same except the entry format is now
The next two lines are for the fourth variable (snow covered area).
Data are read the same with the entry format now at f4.0.
After this, scroll down the file for a bit. You'll pass a bunch
of other garbage along the way (the other variable measurements).
You then will hit a line with a year and the station name on
it. You are now at the beginning of the next year of measurements
and can obtain the first four variable's worth of measurements
by repeating the process above.
Unfortunately, I have not worked at all with variables 5-10.
There are problems with their quality and content and thus have
not been of much use to us so far. I have dabbled with variables
#11 & #13, but just a little. It seems as though some may
have use for the ground temperature at various depths entries.
I have not used these measurements as of yet, so I cannot give
detailed instructions on how to look at the stuff. Upon requesIf
needed, I can go back and look around, get a feel for them there,
and then send you a line about it. From what I remember, they
were not instantaneous measurements, but rather 10-day averages
of the diurnal cycle of the ground temperatures. It also sounds
like some could use the water table depth and temperature measurements.
Let me know and I will send you info on where to find it within
the maze of data in these files.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FOR SUB-SURFACE DATA:
Here is some additional information for some of the sub-surface
data which I have put together in response to various requests:
DEPTH AND TEMP OF WATER TABLE: These data only exist for two
stations (Tulun and Ogurtsovo). The observations show the water
table depth to be rather deep (> 20m for Tulun and roughly
10m for Ogurtsovo). Tulun showed no annual pattern of water table
depth variations (it was fairly constant for the 6 year period).
Ogurtsovo showed a pretty annual cycle with the water table depth
rising in the spring (in response to the snowmelt) and deepening
in the summer. If you would like to look at the data anyway,
I have extracted it myself and can give you the data files along
with a little Fortran program that reads in the data and writes
it into a GrADS readable file.
MELTING AND FREEZING DEPTH OF SOIL:
These data have been extracted
and are available as a separate data set.
GROUND TEMPERATURE AT DIFFERENT DEPTHS: These data are located
in files 13-18. As an example, pick one of the files 13-18. As
you scroll down the file, you will hit a block of data that looks
something like this:
06101AM111 132 137 136 99999999-005-004-003 002-05 01 08 82 90 15
06107AM106 112 120 125 03522 019 006 003 010 02 05 12 109 96 26
06110AM159 125 121 123 06519 041 014 009 018 05 06 16 139 90 34
06101PM207 154 133 128 08721 057 009 020 028 09 08 14 159 88 32
06104PM219 175 148 137 06021 037-002 014 025 05 06 17 160 87 38
06107PM182 171 157 143 01422 003-008-003 014-03 04 12 148 92 28
06201AM167 182 184 181 99999999-006-005-004 003-08 01 10 152137 21
06207AM157 158 164 168 02924 020 006 002 012 02 07 12 160137 26
06210AM209 175 166 166 07421 052 014 012 026 06 09 16 192143 36
06201PM263 205 180 172 09418 068 008 022 038 08 09 16 217142 36
06204PM258 224 197 182 02721 027-004 004 027 02 08 13 214111 29
06207PM224 217 200 187 01621 004-008-002 014-03 05 10 194149 27
06301AM169 179 179 178 99999999-004-004-001 001-05 -01 06 154159 11
06307AM162 162 166 169 02020 010 005 000 005 00 03 10 159162 22
06310AM199 174 168 169 05618 038 010 008 020 04 06 10 199170 27
06301PM229 195 178 173 07018 046 006 011 029 04 07 15 206174 33
06304PM228 210 188 179 03820 027-003 007 023 02 04 15 201176 31
06307PM231 232 217 206 01222 005-006 000 011 00 04 11 191173 26
This is the block you want. The first four columns after the
month/decade/time column (e.g. 06101AM) are the temperatures at
depths of 5cm, 10cm, 15cm, and 20cm (°C) from left to right.
These temperatures are averages over what the Russians term a
"decade" (a 10-day period during the month). So these
are 10-day averaged diurnal cycles of temperature. The format
for reading in the month/decade/time and the four temperature
A decade # of 1 means the first 10-days of the month. Decade
#2 the 2nd 10-day period, etc...
HOWEVER, I think you'll notice that these data are like swiss
cheese temporally. On the average, it appears that the measurements
are taken only during the warmer months. But, this should get
you through the data if you want to look at it. Good luck!
HEAT BALANCE COMPONENTS: These data are actually CALCULATED from
some physically based algorithms as functions of temperature changes
in time and temperature profiles. Since these are not actually
MEASURED values, we originally did not put this data as priority
to look at. I can give you information on the data though if
you're interested. Just let me know.
AN IMPORTANT NOTE CONCERNING THE METEOROLOGICAL DATA:
The METEOROLOGICAL DATA of the six station data set were taken
and stored with respect to MOSCOW TIME AND NOT LOCAL TIME. The
ACTINOMETRIC DATA, however, are stored with respect to LOCAL TIME.
Thus you will have to make the necessary adjustments when using
the meteorological and actinometric data SIMULTANEOUSLY as forcing.
Below I have listed the time differences between the various
stations and Moscow; I also suggest how you should read-in the
meteorological with respect to the actinometric data in order
to obtain the most consistent and corresponding time of day between
the two data sets.
Kostroma: No adjustment
Yershov: +1 hr. from Moscow (but no adjustment w/ 3 hr time step
Uralsk: +1 hr. from Moscow (but no adjustment w/ 3 hr time step
Ogurtsovo: +3 hr from Moscow, read meteo data one timestep earlier
than actinometric data
Tulun: +4 hr from Moscow, read meteo data one timestep earlier
than actinometric data
Khabarovsk: +7 hr from Moscow,read meteo data two timesteps earlier
than actinometric data
For example, in the case of Ogurtsovo, meteorological data at
3 am would correspond to the actinometric data at 6:30 am.
Robock, Alan, Konstantin Ya. Vinnikov, C. Adam
Schlosser, Nina A. Speranskaya, and Yongkang Xue, 1995: Use of
midlatitude soil moisture and meteorological observations to
validate soil moisture simulations with biosphere and bucket
models. J. Climate, 8, 15-35.
Vinnikov, K. Ya. and I. B. Yeserkepova, 1991: Soil moisture: empirical
data and model results. J. Climate, 4, 66-79.
For additional information, please contact:
|C. Adam Schlosser
|Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere
|4041 Powder Mill Rd., Suite 302
|Calverton, MD 20705
|Dr. Konstantin Ya. Vinnikov ||OR
||Prof. Alan Robock|
|Department of Meteorology||
||Department of Environmental Sciences|
|University of Maryland||
||Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey|
|College Park, Maryland 20742 USA||
||New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901 USA|
|Phone: (301) 405-5382||
||Phone: (732) 932-9478|
|Fax: (301) 314-9482||Fax:
TO DOWNLOAD THE DATA,
GET THE COMPLETE CONTENTS,
Prepared by Alan
Robock (firstname.lastname@example.org) and Govindarajalu Srinivasan
Last updated on August 6, 2004