Publications by Alan Robock on Nuclear Winter

Visit for latest powerpoints, images, and summary of work.

Refereed Journal Articles

  1. Robock, Alan, 1984: Snow and ice feedbacks prolong effects of nuclear winter. Nature, 310, 667-670.  PDF file

  2. Vogelmann, A. M., A. Robock and R. G. Ellingson, 1988: Effects of dirty snow in nuclear winter simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 93, 5319-5332.  PDF file

  3. MacCracken, Michael C. and Alan D. Robock, 1988: A message of hope for a missing colleague. Environment, 30, No. 5, 5.  PDF file

  4. Robock, Alan, 1988: Enhancement of surface cooling due to forest fire smoke. Science, 242, 911-913.  PDF file

  5. Robock, Alan, 1989: Policy implications of nuclear winter and ideas for solutions. Ambio, 18, 360-366.  PDF file

  6. Robock, Alan, 1989: New models confirm nuclear winter. Bull. Atomic Sci., 45, No. 7, 32-35.  PDF file    Reprinted as:   Robock, Alan, 1990: Nuclear winter confirmed. National Forum - The Phi Kappa Phi Journal, 70, No. 1, 17-19.  PDF file  

  7. Robock, Alan, 1991: Surface cooling due to forest fire smoke. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 20,869-20,878. ABSTRACT  PDF file

  8. Robock, Alan, Richard P. Turco, Mark A. Harwell, Thomas P. Ackerman, Rigoberto Andressen, Hsin-shih Chang and M. V. K. Sivakumar, 1993: Use of general circulation model output in the creation of climate change scenarios for impact analysis. Climatic Change, 23, 293-335. ABSTRACT  PDF file

  9. Maytín, Carlos E., Miguel Acevedo, Ramón Jaimez, Rigoberto Andressen, Mark A. Harwell, Alan Robock, and Aura Azócar, 1995: Potential effects of global climatic change on the phenology and yield of maize in Venezuela. Climatic Change, 29, 189-211. ABSTRACT  PDF file

  10. Andressen, R., A. Robock, and M. Acevedo, 1996: Escenarios de cambio climático por efecto invernadero y deforestación para Venezuela.  Rev. Geog. Venz., 37, 221-250.   PDF file

  11. Robock, Alan, 1998: Scénario de notre dernier hiver [Scenario for our final winter], Le Temps Stratégique, No. 80, 6-15. (in French)

  12. Toon, Owen B., Richard P. Turco, Alan Robock, Charles Bardeen, Luke Oman, and Georgiy L. Stenchikov, 2007:  Atmospheric effects and societal consequences of regional scale nuclear conflicts and acts of individual nuclear terrorism.  Atm. Chem. Phys., 7, 1973-2002.  PDF file  This paper supersedes the previous discussion version.  Russian translation (по русский)

  13. Robock, Alan, Luke Oman, Georgiy L. Stenchikov, Owen B. Toon, Charles Bardeen, and Richard P. Turco, 2007:  Climatic consequences of regional nuclear conflicts.  Atm. Chem. Phys., 7, 2003-2012.  PDF file   Supplement caption  Supplement   This paper supersedes the previous discussion version.   Figures and animations    Russian translation (по русский)

  14. Toon, Owen B., Alan Robock, Richard P. Turco, Charles Bardeen, Luke Oman, and Georgiy L. Stenchikov, 2007:  Consequences of regional-scale nuclear conflicts.  Science, 315, 1224-1225.  PDF file

  15. Robock, Alan, Owen B. Toon, Richard P. Turco, Luke Oman, Georgiy L. Stenchikov, and Charles Bardeen, 2007: The continuing environmental threat of nuclear weapons:  Integrated policy responses needed.  EOS, 88, 228, 231, doi:10.1029/2007ES001816.  PDF file

  16. Robock, Alan, Luke Oman, and Georgiy L. Stenchikov, 2007:  Nuclear winter revisited with a modern climate model and current nuclear arsenals: Still catastrophic consequences.  J. Geophys. Res., 112, D13107, doi:2006JD008235.  PDF file   Russian translation (по русский)  Featured as a Research Highlight in Nature.
  17. Toon, Owen B., Alan Robock, and Richard P. Turco, 2008:  Environmental consequences of nuclear war.  Physics Today, 61, No. 12, 37-42.  PDF file

  18. Robock, Alan, and Owen Brian Toon, 2010:  Local nuclear war, global suffering.  Scientific American, 302, 74-81.  PDF file

  19. Robock, Alan, 2010: Nuclear winter. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 1, 418-427. (Invited paper)   PDF file

  20. Robock, Alan, 2010: New START, Eyjafjallajökull, and Nuclear Winter. Eos, 91 (47), 444-445, doi:10.1029/2010ES003201.   PDF file

  21. Robock, Alan, 2011: Nuclear winter is a real and present danger. Nature, 473, 275-276.   PDF file

  22. Xia, Lili, and Alan Robock, 2013: Impacts of a nuclear war in South Asia on rice production in mainland China. Climatic Change, 116, 357-372, doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0475-8.    PDF file

  23. Özdoğan, Mutlu, Alan Robock, and Christopher Kucharik, 2013: Impacts of a nuclear war in South Asia on soybean and maize production in the Midwest United States. Climatic Change, 116, 373-387, doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0518-1.   PDF file

  24. Mills, Michael J., Owen B. Toon, Julia Lee-Taylor, and Alan Robock, 2014: Multi-decadal global cooling and unprecedented ozone loss following a regional nuclear conflict. Earth’s Future, 2, 161-176, doi:10.1002/2013EF000205.    PDF file 

  25. Xia, Lili, Alan Robock, Michael Mills, Andrea Stenke, and Ira Helfand, 2013: Global famine after a regional nuclear war. Submitted to Earth’s Future.   PDF file

Refereed Book Chapters

  1. Robock, Alan, 1987: Nuclear winter: climatic consequences of nuclear war. Chap. 1 (of Part 9) in Perspectives on Nuclear War and Peace Education, Robert Ehrlich, Ed., (Greenwood, New York), 157-168, 175-176.

  2. Robock, Alan, 1988: Surface temperature effects of forest fire smoke plumes. in Aerosols and Climate, Peter Hobbs and M. Patrick McCormick, Eds., (Deepak, Hampton, VA), 435-442.

  3. Robock, Alan, 1991: Nuclear winter: global horrendous death. Chapter 13 in Horrendous Death, Health, and Well-Being, Daniel Leviton, Ed., (Hemisphere, New York), 243-264. (Invited paper)

  4. Robock, Alan, 1991: Surface cooling due to smoke from biomass burning. Chapter 57 in Global Biomass Burning, Joel S. Levine, Ed., (MIT Press, Cambridge), 463-476.

  5. Robock, Alan, 1996: Nuclear winter. in Encyclopedia of Weather and Climate, vol. 2, edited by Stephen H. Schneider, (Oxford Univ. Press, New York), 534-536. (Invited paper)
  6. Robock, Alan, 2008: Nuclear winter. In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Cutler J. Cleveland, Ed. (Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment).

  7. Robock, Alan, 2008:  Climate effects of nuclear war.  Chapter 3.4 in Global Politics in a Changing World, Fourth Edition, Richard W. Mansbach and Edward Rhodes, Eds., Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, New York, 96-99.  PDF file


Magazine Articles

  1. Robock, Alan, 2007:  Climate effects of a regional nuclear conflict. IPRC Climate, 7, no. 1, 16-18.   PDF file
  2. Robock, Alan, 2008:  Time to bury a dangerous legacy – part II: Climatic catastrophe would follow regional nuclear conflict.  YaleGlobal Online

  3. Robock, Alan, and Owen B. Toon, 2012: Self-assured destruction: The climate impacts of nuclear war, Bull. Atomic Scientists, 68(5), 66-74, doi:10.1177/0096340212459127. (Invited article)   PDF file

Book Reviews

  1. Robock, Alan, 1986: Review of Environmental Consequences of Nuclear War, SCOPE 28 and Planet Earth in Jeopardy. J. Climatology, 7, 100-102. (Invited paper)

  2. Robock, Alan, 1991: The imparsible dream? [Review of A Path Where No Man Thought: Nuclear Winter and the End of the Arms Race.] Bull. Atomic Sci., 47, No. 2, 43-44. (Invited paper)

Conference Proceedings

  1. Robock, Alan, 1985: Comments on "The Potential Effects of Nuclear War on the Climate," a report to the United States Congress, by Caspar W. Weinberger, Secretary of Defense. Nuclear Winter, Joint Hearing before the Committee on Science and Technology and the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives, March 14, 1985, (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington), 274-277.

  2. Robock, Alan, Andrew M. Vogelmann and Robert G. Ellingson, 1986: Dirty snow effects are of small climatic consequence in nuclear winter scenarios. Technical Papers Presented at the Defense Nuclear Agency Global Effects Review, Vol. III, DASIAC-TN-86-29-V3, (Defense Nuclear Agency, Washington), 155-174.

  3. Robock, Alan, 1987: Surface temperature effects of forest fire smoke plumes. Technical Papers Presented at the Defense Nuclear Agency Global Effects Review-7-9 April 1987, Vol. II, DASIAC-TN-87-35-V2, (Defense Nuclear Agency, Washington), 69-87. (Invited paper)

  4. Robock, Alan, 1988: Cooling from 1987 forest fires. Technical Papers Presented at the Defense Nuclear Agency Global Effects Review - 19-21 April 1988, Vol. II, MRC-R-1173-87-35-V2,, (Mission Research Corporation, Santa Barbara, CA), 225-242. (Invited paper)

Prepared by Alan Robock ( - Last updated on  May 28, 2014